for Writers of Research Papers
Begin your Footnote citations four lines (quadruple space) below your text. Follow the spacing as shown in the example below, e.g. indent the first line 1/2" (1.25 cm), and add a space after the superscripted number. Do not indent second and subsequent lines of Footnotes. Single-space Footnotes within each citation as there is not much room at the bottom of the page. Double-space entries between citations, and be sure to list them in the same consecutive order as cited in the text of the essay.
Mr. K. Smith
26 May 2016
The Many Facets of Taboo
The World Book Encyclopedia defines Taboo as "an action, object, person, or place forbidden by law or culture."1
An encyclopedia of the occult points out that taboo is found among many other cultures including the ancient Egyptians, Jews and others.2
Mary Douglas has analyzed the many facets and interpretations of taboos across various cultures. She points out that the word "taboo" originates from the Polynesian languages meaning a religious restriction.3She finds that "taboos flow from social boundaries and support the social structure."4
Robert Deliège points out that as early as 1777, Captain James Cook reported that some chiefs in Tonga were taboo and were not allowed to behave like common people, and that the first European observers were not quite sure whether "taboo" meant "sacred" or "defiled."5
In traditional British East Africa, between the time of puberty and marriage, a young Akamba girl must maintain an avoidance relationship with her own father.6
Looking at taboo in a modern society, Marvin Harris gives an interesting example of the application of cultural materialism to the Hindu taboo against eating beef.7
5 Robert Deliège, "Untouchability - Taboos - Bibliography,"?Science Encyclopedia, Web. 26 May 2012 <http://science.jrank.org/pages/8139/Untouchability-Taboos.html>.
6 Sigmund Freud, Totem and Taboo (New York: Random, 1918) 17.
7 Marvin Harris, "The Cultural Ecology of India’s Sacred Cattle," Current Anthropology 1992, 7:51-66, qtd. in Stacy McGrath, "Ecological Anthropology," Anthropological Theories: A Guide Prepared by Students for Students 19 Oct. 2001, U. of Alabama, Web. 26 May 2012 <http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/Faculty/Murphy/ecologic.htm>.
If your instructor considers your Footnote citations to be adequate documentation, you may not be required to complete a Works Cited, References or Bibliography page. Otherwise, a separate page must be added at the end of your paper entitled: Works Cited, References, or Bibliography to include all of the above Footnote citations. See sample below.
Deliège, Robert. "Untouchability - Taboos - Bibliography." Science Encyclopedia, 2012, Web. 26 May 2012 <http://science.jrank.org/pages/8139/Untouchability-Taboos.html>.
Douglas, Mary. "Taboo." Man, Myth & Magic. Ed. Richard Cavendish. New ed. 21 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1994. 2546-2549. Print.
Dundes, Alan. "Taboo." World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Totem and Taboo. New York: Random, 1918. Print.
McGrath, Stacy. "Ecological Anthropology." Anthropological Theories: A Guide Prepared by Students for Students. 19 Oct. 2001. U. of Alabama. Web. 26 May 2012
"Taboo." Occultopedia: Encyclopedia of Occult Sciences and Knowledge. Site created and designed by Marcus V. Gay. Web. 26 May 2012 <http://www.occultopedia.com/t/
HOME PREVIOUS NEXT
Many disciplines use MLA style, the citation style developed by the Modern Language Association. Some disciplines require other citation styles such as the Turabian, Chicago, or APA (American Psychological Association) styles.
Always ask your professor which style is preferred in his or her class. There are printed style guides at the Reference Desk. Purdue OWL is a great source to reference. The University Writing Center can help too.
 Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. (New York: Modern Language Association, 2003).
 Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).
 The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003).
 Concise Rules of APA Style (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2005).